On March 20, 2014, the W3C finally published the WAI-ARIA standard version 1.0. After many years of development, refinement and testing, it is now a web standard.

But I am often asked again and again: What is it exactly? What can it do for me as a web developer? And what can it not do?

I often find that there are assumptions made about WAI-ARIA that are not correct, and the use of it with such wrong assumptions often lead to sites that are less accessible than when ARIA is not being used at all.

In addition, Jared W Smith of WebAIM just yesterday wrote a very good blog post titled Accessibility Lipstick on a Usability Pig, highlighting another related problem: Even though a website may suck usability-wise, pouring WAI-ARIA sugar on it somehow forces it into compliance, but it still sucks big time.

So with all these combined, and after receiving encouragement by Jason Kiss on Twitter, I decided to write this post about what WAI-ARIA is, what it can do for you as a web developer, and what it cannot do. Or rather: When should you use it, and more importantly, when not.

I realize such articles have been written before, and these facts have also all been stressed time and again in talks by various good people in the field of web accessibility. But it is such an important topic that it is finally time for this blog to have such an all-encompassing article as well.

So without further due, let’s jump in!

What is it?

WAI-ARIA stands for “Web Accessibility Initiative – Accessible Rich Internet Applications”. It is a set of attributes to help enhance the semantics of a web site or web application to help assistive technologies, such as screen readers for the blind, make sense of certain things that are not native to HTML. The information exposed can range from something as simple as telling a screen reader that activating a link or button just showed or hid more items, to widgets as complex as whole menu systems or hierarchical tree views.

This is achieved by applying roles and state attributes to HTML 4.01 or later markup that has no bearing on layout or browser functionality, but provides additional information for assistive technologies.

One corner stone of WAI-ARIA is the role attribute. It tells the browser to tell the assistive technology that the HTML element used is not actually what the element name suggests, but something else. While it originally is only a div element, this div element may be the container to a list of auto-complete items, in which case a role of “listbox” would be appropriate to use. Likewise, another div that is a child of that container div, and which contains a single option item, should then get a role of “option”. Two divs, but through the roles, totally different meaning. The roles are modeled after commonly used desktop application counterparts.

An exception to this are document landmark roles, which don’t change the actual meaning of the element in question, but provide information about this particular place in a document. You can read more about landmarks in my WAI-ARIA tip #4. Also, if you’re using HTML5, there are equivalent elements you might want to use as well.

The second corner stone are WAI-ARIA states and properties. They define the state of certain native or WAI-ARIA elements such as if something is collapsed or expanded, a form element is required, something has a popup menu attached to it or the like. These are often dynamic and change their values throughout the lifecycle of a web application, and are usually manipulated via JavaScript.

What is it not?

WAI-ARIA is not intended to influence browser behavior. Unlike a real button element, for example, a div which you pour the role of “button” onto does not give you keyboard focusability, an automatic click handler when Space or Enter are being pressed on it, and other properties that are indiginous to a button. The browser itself does not know that a div with role of “button” is a button, only its accessibility API portion does.

As a consequence, this means that you absolutely have to implement keyboard navigation, focusability and other behavioural patterns known from desktop applications yourself. A good example can be read about in my Advanced ARIA tip about tabs, where I clearly define the need to add expected keyboard behavior.

When should I not use it?

Yes, that’s correct, this section comes first! Because the first rule of using WAI-ARIA is: Don’t use it unless you absolutely have to! The less WAI-ARIA you have, and the more you can count on using native HTML widgets, the better! There are some more rules to follow, you can check them out here.

I already mentioned the example with buttons versus clickable divs and spans with a role of “button”. This theme continues throughout native roles vs. ARIA roles and also extends to states and properties. An HTML5 required attribute has an automatic evaluation attached to it that you have to do manually if you’re using aria-required. The HTML5 invalid attribute, combined with the pattern attribute or an appropriate input type attribute will give you entry verification by the browser, and the browser will adjust the attribute for you. All of these things have to be done manually if you were using aria-invalid only. A full example on the different techniques for form validation can be found in a blog post I wrote after giving a talk on the subject in 2011.

Fortunately, this message seems to finally take hold even with big companies. For example, the newest version of Google Maps is using button elements where they used to use clickable divs and spans. Thanks to Chris Heilmann for finding this and pointing it out during an accessibility panel at Edge Conf (link to Youtube video) in March 2014!

Here’s a quick list of widget roles that have equivalents in HTML where the HTML element should be preferred whenever possible:

WAI-ARIA role Native element Notes
button button use type=”button” if it should not act as a submit button
checkbox input type=”checkbox”
radiogroup and radio fieldset/legend and input type=”radio” fieldset is the container, legend the prompt for which the radio buttons are the answer for, and the input with type of “radio” are the actual radio buttons
combobox select size=”1″ Only exception is if you need to create a very rich compound widget. But even then, combobox is a real mess which warrants its own blog post.
listbox select with a size greater than 1 Only exception is if you create a rich auto/complete widget
option option As children of select elements or combobox or listbox role elements
list ul or ol Not to be confused with listbox! list is a non-interactive list such as an unordered or ordered list. Those should always be preferred. Screen readers generally also supporting nesting them and get the level right automatically.
spinbutton input type=”number” If the browser supports it.
link a with href attribute Should, in my humble opinion, never ever ever be used in an HTML document!
form form Nobody I know from the accessibility community can actually explain to me why this one is even in the spec. I suspect it has to do primarily with SVG, and maybe EPUB.

The reason all these roles to native elements mappings are in there at all are because of the fact that WAI-ARIA can also be applied to other markup such as EPUB 3 and SVG 2. Also, some elements such as spin buttons and others are new in HTML5, but because WAI-ARIA was originally meant to complement HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.x, and HTML5 was developed in parallel, roles, states and properties were bound to overlap, but got more defined behaviors in browsers for HTML5.

Likewise, you should prefer states such as disabled and required over the WAI-ARIA equivalents aria-disabled and aria-required if you’re writing HTML5. If you write HTML 4.01 still, this rule does not apply. If you’re specifically targetting HTML5, though, there is not really a need for the aria-required, aria-disabled and aria-invalid states, since the browsers take care of that for you. And yes, I know that I am in disagreement with some other accessibility experts, who advise to use both the HTML5 and WAI-ARIA attributes in parallel. Problem with that is, in my opinion, that it is then extra work to keep the WAI-ARIA attributes in sync. Especially with the aria-invalid attribute, this means that you’ll still have to put in some JavaScript that responds to the state of the HTML5 form validation state.

Why this duplication? Why can’t the browser just also react to the WAI-ARIA attributes as it does to the HTML ones?

This is a question I am getting a lot. The simple answer is: Because WAI-ARIA was never meant to change browser behavior, only expose extra information to assistive technologies. The more complex answer is: WAI-ARIA can be applied to XHTML 1.0 and 1.1, HTML 4.01, and HTML5. The HTML5 attributes can only be applied to HTML5 capable browsers, including mobile, but will give you all kinds of extra features defined in the standard for these attributes. If the WAI-ARIA attributes were suddenly made to influence actual browser behavior, the level of inconsistency would be enormous. To keep WAI-ARIA clean and on a single purpose, it was therefore decided to not make WAI-ARIA attributes influence browser behavior ever.

When should I use it?

Whenever you create a widget that is not indiginous to your host language, e. g. HTML. Examples of such widgets include:

  • tree with treeview children: When creating something the user should be navigating in a hierarchical fashion. Examples can be seen in the folder tree in Windows Explorer or the list of topics and books in the Windows HTML help viewer.
  • menu with menuitem, menuitemcheckbox, and menuitemradio children: A real menu system as can be seen in Windows or OS X apps.
  • grid or treegrid, with gridrow, columnheader, rowheader, and gridcell children: An editable grid similar to a spreadsheet. Not to be confused with data tables which use native HTML table, tr, th, and td elements with proper scope and other attributes.
  • toolbar container with actual buttons or other interactive elements as children.
  • dialog as container for a message or input prompt that needs to be acknowledged or dismissed in a modal fashion, e. g. no other part of the web page or app can be interacted with at the moment. The role alertdialog is related, although I recommend not using it since its support is inconsistent.
  • application, in which you control every single focus and keyboard interaction. For a detailed discussion, see my article on the use of the application role.

In all of the above cases, it is your responsibility to:

  1. Familiarize yourself with the expected user interaction with both mouse and keyboard.
  2. Make sure all elements can be reached via the tab key, and that focus is always visible. Use the tabindex with a value of 0 to put stuff in the tab order at their natural position within the document.
  3. Make sure some items are not necessarily reachable via the tab key. For example in a tool bar, items should be navigated via left and right arrows, and tab should jump straight to the next container (tool bar or other compound widget), and Escape should return to the main application area. Likewise, a tab list should be navigated with left and right arrows, too, and tab itself should jump into the tab panel that is active.
  4. You manage focus appropriate to the type of widget you are in. For example, when opening a dialog (role “dialog”), it is your responsibility to set keyboard focus to it or its first focusable child element, and to manage modality, meaning you must make sure tab does not wander outside the confines of the dialog as long as it is open. Escape should generally cancel, and a dedicated OK/Accept/Save button should close with changing. Make sure once you’re done with a dialog, you return focus to a defined position in your application/document, like the button that opened the dialog in the first place, or keyboard and screen reader users might get lost.

If you do not adhere to the common interaction patterns associated with certain of these roles, your WAI-ARIA sugar might very quickly turn into sour milk for users, because they get frustrated when their expected keyboard interaction patterns don’t work. I strongly recommend studying the WAI-ARIA 1.0 Authoring Practices and keeping them handy for reference because they provide a comprehensive list of attributes and roles associated to one another, as well as more tips on many of the things I just mentioned. Another very good resource is the afore mentioned Using WAI-ARIA in HTML document which provides an extensive technical, yet easy to understand, reference to best practices on how to apply WAI-ARIA code, and also, when not to do it.

Closing remarks

I realize that to someone just getting started with web accessibility, these topics may seem daunting. However, please remember that, like learning HTML, CSS and JavaScript, learning the intricacies of web accessibility means you’re learning a new skill. The more often you use these techniques, the more they become second nature. So don’t be discouraged if you at first feel overwhelmed! Don’t be shy to ask questions, or pull in people for testing! The accessibility community is generally a very friendly and helpful bunch.

One thing that may also help with motivation, and it’s been thankfully mentioned more and more often: Accessibility and usability go hand in hand. The more you improve the usability, the more it gets you there in terms of accessibility, too. And first and foremost, it’s about people! Not about some WCAG technique, not about a law that needs to be fulfilled, but about people actually using your web site or web application. Fulfilling legal requirements and WCAG techniques then come naturally.

So: Make WAI-ARIA one of your tools in your arsenal of tools for web development, but take its first rule to heart: Don’t use it unless you absolutely have to. Get the usability right for keyboard users, make sure stuff is properly visible to everyone even when they’re standing outside with the sun shining down on their shiny mobile phones or tablets (thanks to Eric Eggert for that tip!), and use WAI-ARIA where necessary to provide the extra semantic screen readers need to also make sense of the interactions. With people in mind first, you should be good to go!

Happy coding!

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26 thoughts on “What is WAI-ARIA, what does it do for me, and what not?

  1. Great post on ARIA as usual Marco! Pretty much have everything you need to learn ARIA on your site except for live examples 😉

    Thanks for explaining A11Y API stuff to me over dinner at CSUN. See you next year! 🙂

  2. This is an excellent post Marco for a web developer new to accessibility. I do also sometimes feel that we tend to ignore the end-user side of things when it comes to ARIA. Not all assistive technology users are advanced users and therefore struggle with web pages that have a lot of ARIA mark up on them. For someone used to navigating a web page in the virtual buffer/cursor mode, encountering a complex tab control or a menu control can be a bit daunting. Switching between the virtual buffer mode and a navigation mode based on the accessibility tree can also be confusing if not explained properly. Thankfully, modern screen readers are beginning to rely less on directly accessing the DOM. Anyway, in short, I do think that we need to do more to educate end-users about what to expect when they encounter a web page or website with ARIA mark up.

    • Hi Kiran, yes that is true. If done right, however, tutorial messages such as those provided by JAWS should ideally apply in a web app as well. So navigating left and right on a set of tabs should ideally be just the same as in your ordinary Windows application. That’s why there is such an emphasis on keyboard usability being comparable to that of a native desktop application.

  3. Great article! Just picking up on Kiran’s point: we regularly get people in for usability testing who are novice screen reader users. That doesn’t mean new, they might have used a screen reader for years, but they only know the basics.

    I haven’t investigated this before, but I get the impression that they only really use the web, and perhaps email. I’m not sure that relying on something being ” just the same as in your ordinary Windows application” is going to work in those cases.

    That might be why I’ve seen such confusion in usability testing, such as the automatic switch of mode (not noticing it) and term confusion (e.g. “It said tab so I tabbed”).

    Next time I’ll ask the facilitator to check about app usage.

    • Yes, a commo theme unfortunately is that many people don’t bother really learning their screen reader. partially because the person training them might also not know enough, which I’ve seen quite a lot in the AT industry, or because they were on their own in the first place, and mostly left alone from then on. When I was still working at Freedom Scientific, many questions I got simply stemmed from the fact that people did not get the full feature set of a particular application’s support, e. g. the web browser. This *is* a problematic point that not only affects rich internet applications, but more so nowadays that they replace traditional desktop applications more and more.

  4. Re
    “…you should prefer states such as disabled and required over the WAI-ARIA equivalents aria-disabled and aria-required if you’re writing HTML5. ”

    One reason why we don’t: sometimes we want to tell the user “this is required” without relying on hoping they find the “*”, but without then also needing to fight the built-in browser behaviour (sometimes we want to completely do our own thing for required, invalid stuff… very often due to things like localisation, or we’re already manually creating “states” as classes to support older browsers, whatever).
    Though this is completely in line with what you say: aria-* does not give us any browser behaviour and we should not use it for such. Sometimes, that’s damn handy : )

    Re: tab panels and novice users: user testing is the only way to really decide how to set up the keyboard interaction… as a similar case, most web developers (at least in the English-speaking world) will say “never open links in new tabs”. However if your user testing shows that your locally-targetted population (say, Dutch low-end/simple/novice computer users) have been trained to expect otherwise, you’ve got to do whatever works for the user.

    Since most sighted computer novices seem very mouse-dependent (in my experience), this makes testing keyboard interaction difficult compared to general interaction. : (

  5. One reason why we don’t: sometimes we want to tell the user “this is required” without relying on hoping they find the “*”, but without then also needing to fight the built-in browser behaviour (sometimes we want to completely do our own thing for required, invalid stuff… very often due to things like localisation, or we’re already manually creating “states” as classes to support older browsers, whatever).

    Thats what the novaliate attribute on the form is for, it disables all browser validation and lets you do your own thing.

  6. Great article, thankyou a lot.

    We are currently designing and specifying a kind of a landing page consisting of 10-12 widgets. The widgets give short and tailored information and lead the user to further information on underlying pages. The widgets are customizable, they have own controls and that leads to the big question we have:

    Should we switch to for having all the keystrokes and switch inside the widget back to role=”document” for the news articles etc.?

    What would you suggest?

    News on topic A

    News title A1
    Text, publication date

    • Hi Sven, yes, the news articles themselves should be of role “document”, as I describe in great detail in my article about role “application”, linked to from this post. I suggest to read up on that one and be very conscious about where the keyboard focus is at any given time. Perhaps you might even be better off without using role “application” at all, and have the widgets just be part of the regular web site content. Only testing with a screen reader will really show you that.

  7. Thanks Marco,
    I have just learned about WAI-ARIA, some questions after read your blog:
    – How can we test the WAI-ARIA on a web page, I’m using Fang (firefox) and Chromevox (chrome) to see how WAI-ARIA displayed on screen reader.
    – You said WAI-ARIA’ attributes shouldn’t go with HTML5 but you are using WAI-ARIA’ attributes with HTML5 elements in your blog.


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